V. M. Balsaraf and G.B. Kunde
Datta Meghe College of Engineering, Airoli, Sec-3, Navi Mumbai 400 708, India
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Physico – Chemical studies, Waste water, BOD and COD, Heavy metals.
Water plays a vital role in our life. It is most abundant wonderful and useful solvent in nature although it is most abundant commodity in nature, it is most misused one. 80% of the earth crust is covered with water. The quantity available for actual use in the form of rivers, lakes, wells and ponds is hardly 0.5% of the world water resources. Nearly 96% of water is locked in oceans which is too saline to drink or to be used directly for agriculture, industrial or domestic purpose. Rapid industrialization and urbanization resulted in successful pollution of water resources available on the earth, which has caused significant effects on the aquatic ecosystem (Trivedi and Goel 1986), plants and animal life.
Pollutant enters in water resources from domestic waste, industrial waste, pesticides, radioactive sources etc. aquatic fishes and other plants are contaminated by water pollutants these materials are used by man for food purpose pollutant enters in our body and creates health problems and even death. Arsenic poisoning in Japan and cadmium poisoning in Calcutta is mainly due to the eating of contaminated fishes. Fishes can store more quantity of Pb, Hg, As, Cd, as compared to man. In order to avoid future problems it is essential to protect the water resources available from further pollution. Periodical and continuous monitoring of waste quality is necessary so that an appropriate step may be taken for water resources management. Present investigation was undertaken for the study of various parameters to adopt necessary steps in monitoring.
Sample collection - These samples of the waste water was collected from various places. The samples were stored at room temperature and an immediate analysis was made using standard methods APHA (1995).
All of the waste water samples were determined by using PH meter (Elico). Total dissolved solids and suspended impurities were determined gravimetrically after filtering 200ml of water through 42mm filter. Total hardness was determined by EDTA method. Dissolved oxygen kit was monitored using Hach Dissolved oxygen contents kit BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand) by Winkler’s method and COD (Chemical oxygen demand) by titrimetric method. Cd, Hg, Cr and Pb, heavy metals concentration in the waste water were determined by standard analytical methods.
pH and TDS
The pH values of the present investigation are 7.0 to 8.0, were with in standard limits (7.0 to 8.5). Total dissolved solids TDS values of Brownish black turbid waste water are below the prescribed limit imparted sulphide odour to the water. The TDS values ranges in from 1090 to 1527 ppm. Higher values may be partley due to the proximity of sea coast.
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
Oxygen presence in water may be due to direct diffusion from air and photosynthetic activities of autotrophs. Oxygen is needed for living organism to maintain their biological processes, excess of oxygen causes corrosion of iron and steels, hence it should be immediately removed from water, The DO values in (II) (i) is slightly above the ICMR standards.
In the present investigation organic matter contents are between 320 to 900mg/L which are above the standard limits.
BOD and COD
The values 850 - 1775 range are extremely high indicating excess of pollution. These should be brought near to the standard limits before the discharge of waste water.
Presence of heavy metals Cd, Hg, pb, are with in the standard limits. in the standard limits.
BOD and COD values are exceeding the permissible limits as prescribed by Indian standards. The above mentioned result indicates that the water is excessively polluted and it is undesirable to discharge the waste without proper treatment or it is undesirable to construct without standard measures.