ISSN (0970-2083)

A STUDY OF PHYSICO CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SABARMATI RIVER WATER IN AHMEDABAD CITY, GUJARAT, INDIA

Ikram Qureshi1*, Devang Gandhi1, Samarth Zarad2 and Harshal Gandhi2

1Department of Biosciences, Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Vidyanagari, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India.

2Pollucon Laboratories Pvt. Ltd, Surat, Gujarat, India

*Corresponding Authors:
Ikram Qureshi
Department of Biosciences, Shri Jagdishprasad
Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Vidyanagari
Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India
E-mail: samarthzarad@gmail.com

Received Date: 09 September, 2017 Accepted Date: 23 April, 2018

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Abstract

Sabarmati River water sample was analyzed for the Chemical and Biological parameters such as pH, BOD, DO, COD, Phosphate, Conductivity and Total Coliform Organisms. River water samples were seasonally collected from the location of Dr. Ambedkar bridge, Sardar bridge, Swami Vivekanand bridge, Gandhi bridge and Subhash bridge. Evolution of Chemical and Microbiological Test results concluds that Sabarmati river water does not classified in Class-A,B or C Category, hence water treatment and disinfection process of river water was required before its use for drinking purpose.

Keywords

BOD, COD, DO, Sabarmati river, pH.

Introduction

Sabarmati River Basin has a length about 300 km and its covered the Rajasthan and Gujarat state. Sabarmati Basin covers total catchment area of 21674 km2 out of it 18550 km2 area covers in Gujarat state. Current Research paper focused on Sabarmati river water quality in Ahmedabad city. Total 15 river water samples were collected from five locations and seasonal analysis was carried out in the month of March 2016, July 2016 and December 2016 for the parameter of pH, BOD, COD, DO, Phosphate, Conductivity and Total Coliforms organisms. Analytical test results of Physico chemical and Biological parameters was compared with the CPCB Classification of River water (CPCB, 1994) and estimated the Status of Sabarmati river water quality in Ahmedabad city (Figure. 1) and Table 1.

Figure 1: Sabarmati river flow in Ahmedabad city.

Location Area GPS Identification
1

Dr. Ambedkar bridge

22°59'43.7"N 72°33'54.6"E (Khodiyarnagar)
2

Sardar bridge

23°00'37.3"N 72°34'33.2"E (River front walkway)
3

Swami Vivekanand bridge

23°01'20.3"N 72°34'26.9"E (River front walkway)
4

Gandhi bridge

23°02'23.8"N 72°34'19.9"E (Shreyas colony)

5

Subhash bridge

23°03'44.6"N 72°35'06.1"E (Old Wadag)

Table 1. Sampling site location and GPS identification.

Material and Methods

Total 15 River water samples were collected from five locations during the month of March-2016, july-2016 and December-2016. Sampling site was tracked with GPS identifications. Water sample were collected and analyzed as per IS 10500(2012) specifications. Water quality was evaluated as per specifications given in Indian Standard guideline IS 10500 (2012) and APHA (Table 2).

S No Test Parameters Unit Method
1 pH Value NA IS3025 Part-11
2 BOD ppm IS 3025 Part-44
3 COD ppm IS 3025 Part-58
4 DO ppm IS 3025 Part-38
5 Phosphate ppm APHA (22nd Edition)
6 Conductivity µs/cm IS 3025 Part-14
7 Total Coliforms organism MPN/100 ml, MPN/100 ml, APHA (22nd Edition)

Table 2. Standard methods.

Sampling Time: Water sampling was carried out in the second week of March 2016, July 2016 and December 2016. Sampling schedule was morning 9.30 am to evening 5.30 pm.

Sampling Process: In order to achieve accurate test results, sample preservation method is highly required. Sampling container and sampling technique also have an impact on Analytical test results. Indian standard method (IS) and APHA method was followed for sampling and preservation of water sample (Guidelines for Water Quality Monitoring, 2007; Arvnabh, 2010).

Result and Discussion

Sabarmati river water sample from Location 1, observed pH range of water between 6.9 to 7.4, BOD value was calculated between 6.1 to 8.5 ppm, COD value was obtained between 6 to 9 ppm, DO value was found between 7.2 to 9.6 ppm, Phosphate value was identified between 6.7 to 9.3 ppm, river water conductivity was observed between 507 to 685 μs/ cm. Total Coliform organism MPN/100 ml was observed >1600.

Analysis of Sabarmati river water sample from Location 2, Evaluated pH range of water between 6.9 to 7.2, BOD value was Calculated between 7.4 to 9.4 ppm, COD value was obtained between 5 to 8 ppm, DO value was obtained between 8.3 to 10.2 ppm, Phosphate value was found between 5.8 to 8.8 ppm, Sabarmati river water conductivity was obtained between 421 to 607 μs/cm. Total Coliform organism MPN/100 ml was found >1600 (APHA, 2009; WHO, 1992; Zafar and Sultana; 2008; Yakub and Ugwumba, 2009; Water quality, 2011).

Physicochemical and Biological test parameter of Location 3, observed pH range between 6.8 to 6.9, BOD value was estimated between 7.6 to 9.6 ppm, COD value was obtained between 4 to 7ppm, DO value was observed between 8.7 to 10.5 ppm, Phosphate value was evaluated between 5.3 to 7.4 ppm, Sabarmati river water conductivity was obtained between 482 to 569 μs/cm. Total Coliform organism MPN/100 ml was estimated >1600.

Chemical and Microbiological test parameter of Location 4, observed pH range between 6.7 to 7.0, BOD value was found between 8.2 to 10.2 ppm, COD value was obtained between 5 to 6 ppm, DO value was observed between 9.2 to 11.1 ppm, Phosphate value was evaluated between 5.1 to 6.5 ppm, Sabarmati river water conductivity was obtained between 411 to 521 μs/cm. Total Coliform organism MPN/100 ml was observed >1600.

Analysis of Sabarmati river water sample from Location 5, obderved pH value of water between 6.7 to 6.9, BOD value was Calculated between 8.5 to 10.4 ppm, COD value was obtained between 4 to 6 ppm, DO value was obtained between 9.7 to 11.7 ppm, Phosphate value was found between 5.3 to 6.2 ppm, river water conductivity was obtained between 428 to 510 μs/cm. Total Coliform organism MPN/100 ml was evaluated >1600 (Tables 3-7) and (Figures. 2-7).

Figure 2: Observation of average pH value.

Figure 3: Observation of average BOD value.

Figure 4: Observation of average COD value.

Figure 5: Observation of average phosphate value.

Figure 6: Observation of average phosphate value.

Figure 7: Observation of average conductivity value.

Location 1
Site Dr. Ambedkar bridge
Parameters Summer Winter Monsoon Max. Avg. Min.
pH 7.4 7.2 6.9 7.4 7.2 6.9
BOD (ppm) 6.1 7.3 8.5 8.5 7.3 6.1
COD (ppm) 9 8 6 9 7.7 6
DO (ppm) 7.2 8.1 9.6 9.6 8.3 7.2
Phosphate (ppm) 9.3 8.1 6.7 9.3 8.0 6.7
Conductivity (µs/cm) 507 577 685 685 590 507
Total Coliforms organism MPN/100 ml, Max >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600

Table 3. Chemical and biological test results of Location 1.

Location 2
Site Sardar bridge
Parameters Summer Winter Monsoon Max. Avg. Min.
pH 7.2 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.0 6.9
BOD (ppm) 7.4 8.3 9.4 9.4 8.4 7.4
COD (ppm) 8 6 5 8 6.3 5
DO (ppm) 8.3 8.7 10.2 10.2 9.1 8.3
Phosphate (ppm) 8.8 7.9 5.8 8.8 7.5 5.8
Conductivity (µs/cm) 588 421 607 607 539 421
Total Coliforms organism MPN/100 ml, Max >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600

Table 4. Chemical and biological test results of Location 2.

Location 3
Site Swami Vivekanand bridge
Parameters Summer Winter Monsoon Max. Avg. Min.
pH 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.8 6.8
BOD (ppm) 7.6 8.7 9.6 9.6 8.6 7.6
COD (ppm) 7 6 4 7 5.7 4
DO (ppm) 8.7 9.6 10.5 10.5 9.6 8.7
Phosphate (ppm) 7.4 6.8 5.3 7.4 6.5 5.3
Conductivity (µs/cm) 547 482 569 569 533 482
Total Coliforms organism MPN/100 ml, Max >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600

Table 5. Chemical and Biological test results of Location 3.

Location 4
Site Gandhi bridge
Parameters Summer Winter Monsoon Max. Avg. Min.
pH 7 6.9 6.7 7 6.9 6.7
BOD(ppm) 8.2 8.9 10.2 10.2 9.1 8.2
COD(ppm) 6 6 5 6 5.7 5
DO(ppm) 9.2 10.5 11.1 11.1 10.3 9.2
Phosphate(ppm) 6.5 6.2 5.1 6.5 5.9 5.1
Conductivity(µs/cm) 493 411 521 521 475 411
Total Coliforms organism MPN/100 ml, Max >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600

Table 6. Chemical and biological test results of Location 4.

Location 5
Site Subhash bridge
Parameters Summer Winter Monsoon Max. Avg. Min.
pH 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.9 6.8 6.7
BOD(ppm) 8.5 9.6 10.4 10.4 9.5 8.5
COD(ppm) 6 5 4 6 5 4
DO(ppm) 9.7 11.1 11.7 11.7 10.8 9.7
Phosphate(ppm) 6.2 5.8 5.3 6.2 5.8 5.3
Conductivity(µs/cm) 463 428 510 510 467 428
Total Coliforms organism MPN/100 ml, Max >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600 >1600

Table 7. Chemical and biological test results of Location 5.

Conclusion

Maximum value of pH, BOD, COD, DO, Phosphate and Conductivity were evaluated 7.4, 10.4 ppm, 9.0 ppm, 11.7 ppm, 9.3 ppm and 685 μs/cm respectively, Total Coliform organism MPN/ 100 ml was estimated >1600 in every locations. Seasonal analysis of physico chemical and Biological test parameters of Sabarmati River water sample does not compliance the Category A, B or C river water Classification given by GPCB which indicates the requirement of water treatment and disinfection process before use as a drinking purpose.

References

APHA. (2009). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 22nd edn. Washington, DC.

Guidelines for Water Quality Monitoring. (2007). MINARS/27/2007-08 Central Pollution Control Board.

Mishra, A., Bhatt, V.D., Sevak, N., Shah, P., Patel, K. and Patel, C. (2010). Comparative study of Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters on lotic and ground water in selected outlaying area of central Gujarat. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2(4) : 174-177.

Water Quality. (2011). Hot spots in rivers of india,Ministry of Water resources, New Delhi. India.

WHO (World Health Organization). (1992).Guidelines for drinking water quality.Revision of the1984 guidelines. Final task group meeting. Geneva.

Yakub, A.S. and Ugwumba, A.A.A. (2009). Study on the macro invertebrates fauna of cower Ogun river at ishasi, Ogun state south west Nigeria. The Zoologist. 7 : 65-74.

Zafar, A. and Sultana, N. (2008). Seasonal analysis in the water quality of the river Ganga. J. Curr. Sci. 12(1) : 217-210.

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