Department of Environment Science, Fakir Mohan University, Vyas Vihar, Balasore, Orissa. India
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The Talcher Industrial Zone in the state of Orissa, India is situated in the bank of river Brahmani. The industries are responsible for following Brahmani and its tributories by discharging topic effluents, municipal sewages, domestic garbages etc. River Brahmani is one of the major river systems in Orissa with a catchment area of 39000 Sqm. KM. Which directly and indirectly influences the human activities. The present investigation deals with a comparative study of physico-chemical characteristics of water samples taken from four different sampling locations situated near the industrial zone of Talcher. The authors have constantly monitored the Parameters like - pH, conductivity, hardness, DO, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, PO4, SO4, NO3, Cl etc. during 2005 and 2006 in different seasons viz. Summer, Rainy, Post rainy &Winter. The depletion of DO, increase in COD, BOD, TSS etc. indicate that the water quality is deteriorating at different stretches of the river which is posing a threat to aquatic life. It was observed that many parameters of the sampled surface water were found within the tolerance limit as specified by WHO and IS and some parameters were beyond the limit.
Effluent, DO, BOD, TSS, Tolerance Limit
There is an increasing menace of water pollution through out the globe. The major riverine system are getting polluted day by day in India. This is due to alarming rate of industrialization, urbanization and growth of mechanization. In India major cities and industries have been established on the bank of rivers. The natural quality of river water tends to be degraded due to humans’ activities. The industrial growth is a major flux of discharging wastes including solid & liquid one. Rivers are used as a major sink of industrial wastes as well as municipal solid wastes. The river also supplies water to the entire region of industrial, irrigation and domestic purpose. In India today acute pollution prevails in many rivers viz. Krishna, Tapti, Brahmaputra, Ganga, Hoogly & Brahmani. The industrial zones are developed in the bank of river Brahmani, near Talcher and Rourkela, Hoogly near Calcutta, Ganga near Kanpur and Baranasi etc. The quality of river water is decreasing because of pollution; hence there is an increasing upkeep interest to clean river water.
The selection of stations has been done mostly on the basis of proximity of major industries and municipal townships which are expected to make significant contributions to the pollution load. The Talcher industrial complex is situated on the bank of the river Brahmani which is about 8-10 KM away from the river bank. The present work deals with the assessment of water quality of the river Brahmani polluted by the waste effluent of Talcher industrial complex drained through the Nandira jhor in to the river. The complex grew up near by the coal mines of Talcher. It consists of Thermal power stations, coal based fertilizer plant of FCI producing urea, heavy water plant and chemical industries. The effluent of the fertilizer plant is drained through the Deojhar Nallah which finally meets the Nandira Jhor carrying effluents of other units and waste water of Talcher township. The total waste born by the Nandira Jhor finally enters into the river Brahmani. Treated and untreated municipal and industrial wastes are discharged directly into the river at various points.
Water samples were collected in plastic bottles from each of these sites (Table 1) seasonally for two years (2005 & 2006). The samples were analyzed during summer, rainy, post rainy & winter per year mentioned as above. The samples were collected during day time from 10 AM to 5 PM at a distance of about 5 meters inside the river from the bank and at a depth of about 0.25 Mtrs. The physical and chemical parameters were estimated according to methods described in standard methods for the examination of water and wastes water.
Water sample at different stretches of river Brahmani in the study area - (Physics-Chemical parameters of Brahmani River water) the turbidity of water sample of river Brahmani at Samal varies from 280 NTU to 335 NTU through out the year 2005 & 2006. The maximum value in rainy season was obvious due to muddy water flow. In summer and winter the values were 280 to 310 NTU. Which is more than the permissible limit (25 NTU) that may be due to the discharge of effluent in the study area at the upper end of Samal Barrage? In down stream of Kamalanga it was varies from 300 NTU to 350 NTU. The gradual increase in turbidity from up to down stream is the indication of pollution load due to industrial activity.
The pH of the river water at this place of study fluctuated within 7.6 to 8.2. The low PH 7.6 void observed in the Summer season. It may be due to the discharge of effluents from the study area at the upper end of Samal Barrage. The pH at Talcher monitoring station was varies from 7.5 to 8.2 and at Kamalanga it was varies from 7.5 to 8.3. The tendency of fluctuating water pH may be due to the mixing of with washings water and industrial effluent.
The pH of the river water at this place of study fluctuated within 7.6 to 8.2. The low pH 7.6 void observed in the Rainy season and high pH 8.2 was observed in the summer season. It may be due to the discharge of effluents from the study area at the upper end of Samal Barrage. The pH at Talcher monitoring station was varies from 7.5 to 8.2 and at Kamalanga it was varies from 7.6 to 8.3. The tendency of fluctuating water pH may be due to the mixing of mine washings water and industrial effluent.
The D.O. present in water of river Brahmani at Samal Barrage was within the range of 5.9 to 6.5 mg./ L which is shightly below than the standard and may be due to missing of deoxygenativing pollutant from the study area. The D.O. in water sample at Talcher was varies 5.7 to 6.7 mg./L and at Kamalanga it was varies from 5.8 to 6.8 mg./L. The fluctuations in D.O. Level may be due to the mixing of effluents & pollutant in the river Brahmani
In the present study COD at Samal Barrage was varies from 13mg/L to 21 mg/L and at Kamalanga it was varies from 14mg/L to 23mg/L. It is seen that in three monitoring stations the COD level was higher in 2005 in comparison to 2005 in all season and which was also above the tolerance limit i.e. 10 mg/ L.
The BOD values in water sample at Samal Barrage was various from 2.0 to 2.6 mg/L during the monitoring period 2005 to 2006. Where as it was 3.2 to 3.8 mg/L at Talcher and 8.6 to 4.3mg/L at Kamalanga respectively against the tolerance limit 3.0 mg/L. This may be due to pollution load which may be due to industrial activity.
In all three monitoring station over the river Brahmani at Samal, Talcher and Kamalanga the values of Sulphate (SO4) are far below then the tolerance limit. The major sources of contamination of Phos-phate (PO4) in water are due to domestic surage, detergent, agriculture runoff and industrial effluent. In three monitoring station of present study the phosphate value was varies from 1.9 to 3.8 mg/L. The NO3 in all the three monitoring station over the river Brahmani at Samal, Talcher and Kamalanga the values were (0.6mg/L to 2.2 mg/L) below than the permissible limit. The Chloride (Cl) concentration at monitoring station Samal Barrage, Talcher and Kamalanga were 25mg/l respectively. Those values were below than the tolerance limit i.e. 200 mg/L.
It was observed that in river water at Samal Barrage availability were varies from 68mg/L to 85mg/ L at Talcher it was varies from 52mg/L to 97 mg/L. All the values in all the three monitoring stations of river Brahmani were below than the limiting standard.
The conductivity was found at Samal Barrage from 100 Mmho/cum to 214mmho/cum at Talcher it was varies from 120 Mmho/cum to 225mmho/cum. It was seen that in all the monitoring station was due to agricultural sum off, mines discharge mixing with the river water or Brahmani.
The TDS at Samal Barrage was varies from 150mg/L to 185mg/L and TSS from 100mg/L to 175mg/L and at Kanalanga TDS was varies from 210mg/L to 295mg/L and TSS was varies from 100mg/L to 160mg/L and at Talcher TDS was varies from 190mg/L. The TSS in off season was observed at higher side confirms the mixing of effluent from the industrial complex of Talcher to the river Brahmani.
The total hardness of water at Samal was varies from 97mg/L to 135mg/L at Talcher it was varies from 148mg/L to 188 mg/L and at Kamalanga 190mg/L to 204mg/L. Similarly the Lahardhan at Samal was varies from 48mg/L to 63mg/L at Talcher it was varies from 52mg/L to 68mg/L and at Kamalanga it was varies from 63mg/L to 80mg/L (Table 2, 3, 4, 5).
It may be concluded that the pollution level at different stretches of river Brahmani shows increasing tendency as indicated by the depletion of Oxygen level, increasing values of BOD, COD. If DO deplete, water body will not support aquatic life and water will loose its natural purification capacity. It has been observed that water quality is deteriorating at the up stream after mixing of effluents of Talcher Industrial complex.
Authors are thankful to the Prof. A. Nayak, Retd. Professor in Chemistry, Sambalpur University and Prof. B.K. Sinha Retd. Professor in Environment Science, Sambalpur University for their encouragement.