ISSN (0970-2083)

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John Stefanie*

Department of Environment, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 

*Corresponding Author:
John Stefanie
Department of Environment,
Aarhus University,

Received: 26-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. ICP-22-58175; Editor assigned: 01-May-2022, PreQC No. ICP-22- 58175 (PQ); Reviewed: 15-May-2022, QC No. ICP-22-58175; Revised: 21-May-2022, Manuscript No. ICP-22-58175(A); Published: 31-May-2022 DOI: 10.4172/ 0970-2083.004

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Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities, in such a manner that its normal uses are damaged. Pollution reduces a body of water's ability to provide ecosystem services that it would otherwise provide. Water bodies include lakes, waterways, seas, marshes, reservoirs, and groundwater. When contaminants are introduced into these water bodies, contamination occurs. Sewage, industry, agriculture, and urban runoff, including storm water, are by far the most common sources of water pollution.

The discharge of inadequately treated wastewater into natural waters, for example, can damage aquatic ecosystems. Water pollution can also cause water diseases in those who consume, bathe, wash, or irrigate with dirty water. Some freshwater systems supply clean drinking water as a vital ecosystem service; however, caused by pollution, approximately 785 million people around the world do not have access to clean drinking water.

External polluted water (for example, lakes, streams, estuaries, and parts of the ocean in marine pollution) and groundwater contamination are two types of water pollution. There are two sources of water pollution: point sources and non-point sources. A storm drain, a wastewater treatment plant, or an oil spill is instances of point sources with a single clear cause. Agricultural runoff, for example, is a non-point source. Pollution is the result of a lengthy cumulative influence.

Contains chemicals (e.g., oil, metals, plastics, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants, industrial waste products), stressful conditions (e.g., pH changes, hypoxia or anoxia, stressful temperatures, excessive turbidity, unpleasant taste or odor, and salinity changes), and pathogenic organisms are now all examples of pollution. Organic and inorganic substances can indeed be contaminants. The term "thermal pollution" refers to the fact of heat can be a pollutant. The use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers is a common source of thermal pollution.

Water contamination control requires either infrastructure and management plans, as well as legislation. Social infrastructure, sewage treatment, industrial wastewater treatment, agricultural wastewater treatment, erosion control, sediment control, and urban runoff control were instances of technology solutions (including stormwater management). Slow the amount and volume of flow to completely manage urban runoff.

When chemicals are released to the ground and make their way into groundwater, this one is described as groundwater pollution (also known as groundwater contamination). This form of water pollution can also occur naturally as a result of the existence of a minor and unwanted constituent, contaminant, or impurity in the groundwater, in which case it is referred to as contamination rather than pollution. On-site sanitation systems, landfill leachate, effluent from wastewater treatment facilities, leaking sewers, petrol filling stations, hydraulic frocking, and overuse of fertilizers in agriculture can all contaminate groundwater. Naturally occurring pollutants like arsenic or fluoride can also pollute the air (or contamination). Using contaminated groundwater endangers public health and causes poisoning or the spread of disease (water-borne diseases).

Contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, visible source, such as a pipe or ditch, are known as point source water pollution. Discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain are examples of sources in this category. The Clean Water Act (CWA) of the United States defines a point source for the purposes of regulatory enforcement. The CWA extended its definition of a point source to include municipal storm drainage channels as well as industrial runoff from construction sites.

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