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Varghese R.A1,* and Surumi r.s2

1Post Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, SRM University, India

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, SRM University, India

*Corresponding Author:
Varghese R.A
Post Graduate Student
Department of Civil Engineering
SRM University, India

Received Date: 17 June, 2017 Accepted Date: 22 August, 2017

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Water is one of the fundamental needs required for the survival of human faction and every single living organism in this planet. With rapid hike in global warming and rate of pollution, there is a widespread threat to the resource all round the planet. But the ebb and flow situation features an alternate picture where the quality and estimation of water is being deprived. Drinking water supply and sanitation in India keep on being insufficient in spite of longstanding endeavors by the different levels of government and groups. Effective access to clean water and sufficient sanitation has been the testing issue. The problems due to rapid urbanization, climate changes, poverty and global epidemic risk have necessitated the point of research and study in rectifying the error caused. These variables will impact the overall sustainable development in tending to requirement for water and sanitation sector. This paper reports the water supply and sanitation of a case study under consideration at a local community, concentrating on water quality parameters in the encompassing water bodies and furthermore guarantees the hygiene of the general population in and around the region. Distinctive correction strategies are proposed in view of the outcomes. The study demonstrated that the occupants of the review zone experienced various medical issues because of the absence of waste administration infrastructure. This study suggests suitable remedies in minimizing the problems caused due to improper sanitation and adds to the credibility of effective waste water management.


Global warming, Sanitation, Urbanization, Waste water management, Environment


Water is utilized for a few purposes by people yet the level of virtue of water is exceptionally urgent since it directly affects health. Ground water is the favored hotspot for savoring water rustic zones of creating nations and it for the most part requires no or insignificant treatment. In the occasion that no appropriate aquifers are available, relatively perfect waters from lakes or streams are favored. About 1.2 billion individuals still need safe drinking water and more than 6 million youngsters bite the dust from the runs in creating nations each year. Various strategies are utilized to make water safe to the consumer. The strategy utilized relies on upon the character of the crude water (Gupta, et al., 2016; Okelola and Adekeye, 2014).

Drinking water involves a number of unit processes depending on the quality of the water source, affordability and existing guidelines or standards. The cost required in accomplishing the coveted level of treatment depends, in addition to other things, on the cost and accessibility of the chemicals. Developing countries pay a high cost to import chemicals including poly aluminium chloride and alum. This is the motivation behind why these countries require more techniques requiring low maintenance and skill.

Domestic waste water comes from residential areas and institutions etc. water pollution is a major problem in global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet and 1000 Indian children die of diarrhea sickness every day. To identify the environmental issues related to inadequate water supply & improper sanitation. The scope of the study is to analyze the problems related to inadequate water supply & improper sanitation of the area – Vallanchery andto promote a management system for water distribution and sanitation for the area (Murphy and Edward, 2009) (Figure. 1).


Figure 1: Methodology flow-chart.


Data collection

This study is about the water supply and sanitation at Maraimalai Nagar which concentrates on water quality parameters in the encompassing water bodies and furthermore guarantees the hygiene of the general population in and around the region. Water tests from various water bodies are gathered and tried its outcomes demonstrates the situation of the region.

Case study: Maraimalarnagar, Chennai, India

The basic information corresponding to the local area are collected and the data are documented as shown in the Table 1 below (Figures. 2 and 3).


Figure 2: Area map waste along the factory area.


Figure 3: Factory waste (paper waste and plastic waste).

  Details   Data
Grade Special grade
Area (In Sq. kms) 58.03 Sq-km
Population as per 2011 81361
Total No. of wards 21
Total No. of streets 1260
Total No. of assets water charges 4129
Storm water drain (in kms)
Open drain 198.08
Closed drain 1.45
Total 199.53
Water supply details
Source Palar river
Water drawn-(In MLD) 6.35
Water supply  - (In LPCD) 78
No. of underground tank(sump) -
No. of public fountains 3636
No. of bore wells (India mark-II) 570
No. of open wells 80
No. of mini power pump 185
Total waste gen per day (in MT) 42
Total waste collected per day ( in MT) 38
Details of toilets  
Public toilet 1
Community toilet 6
Namma toilet 4
Total 11

Table 1. General information of Maraimalai Nagar municipality`

 Waste Management Process

Squander: undesirable or unusable material, substance, or by items. Unsafe waste is a waste with properties that make it possibly hazardous or hurtful to human wellbeing or the earth. It can be fluids, solids, or contained gasses. They can be the by - results of assembling procedures, disposed of utilized materials, or disposed of unused business items, for example, cleaning fluids(solvents) or pesticides. EHS: Environment Health and Safety, PPE: Personal Protective Equipment, SAF: Shipping Authorize Form (Figures. 4-7) and Table 2.


Figure 4: Tarpaulin sheets are used to make temporary bathroom waste management process: Avaiyar Street.


Figure 5: Wastes are disposed along road sides.


Figure 6: Water sources (well, water tank, road side pipe water).


Figure 7: Vallanchery lake.

SI. No. Characteristics Requirement Acceptable (limited)
1. PH Value 6.5 to 8.5
2. Total dissolved solids 500 mg/l
3. B.O.D 2 mg/l
4. Iron as Fe 0.3 mg/l
5. Chloride 250 mg/l
6. Sulphate 200 mg/l
7. Ammonical nitrogen 0.5 mg/l
8. Nitrate 45 mg/l
9. Chromium 0.05 mg/l
10. Total hardness 200 mg/l

Table 2. CPCB standards

The vallanchery lake, water tanks, hand pump, roadside tap, bore wells and wells are situated in every road are not fit for drinking but rather can be utilized for other local purposes since it is constantly left open and bunches of earth is constantly kept. Quick populace development has not been joined by an expansion in the conveyance of basic urban administrations, for example, water supply, sewage and sanitation and accumulation and transfer of strong squanders. It is assessed that right now just around half of the urban and 20% of the semi urban populace have admittance to dependable water supply of satisfactory quality that is an option that is superior to a customary source (Mara, 2003; Alagidede and Alagidede, 2015).

Because of lacking water and sanitation benefits unfavorably influence the wellbeing and financial advancement of groups. Absence of safe sanitation is the universes greatest reason for disease. It is the main adversary of world wellbeing. What's more, it denies countless individuals of wellbeing as well as of vitality, time, poise and personal satisfaction. This issue has been covered in humiliation for a really long time, cleanliness helped by safe sanitation and water supply is the thing that changed wellbeing and efficiency in this industrialized nations. What's more, it is one of the universes longest running outrages that the same has in the relatively recent past in the poor world.


In the past part the general strategy and the methodology followed in the investigation of water supply and sanitation have been talked about. The aftereffects of the different parameters and accessibility of toilets administering the productivity have been talked about in this part.

Availability of toilets details

The availability of toilets in house of a particular street in Maraimalai Nagar (Tables 3-6).

SI. No Street name No. of  houses No. of houses with toilet Availability of toilet
Yes No Yes No
1 East potheri 23 6 18 26% 78%
2 Avaiyar street 18 4 15 22% 83%
3 Kambar street 13 5 10 38% 76%
4 Bharathiyar street 16 7 9 43% 57%

Table 3. Observations

SI.NO. Characteristics Requirement Acceptable (limited)
1. PH Value 6.5 to 8.5
2. Total dissolved solids 500 mg/l
3. B.O.D 2 mg/l
4. Iron as Fe 0.3 mg/l
5. Chloride 250 mg/l
6. Sulphate 200 mg/l
7. Ammonical nitrogen 0.5 mg/l
8. Nitrate 45 mg/l
9. Chromium 0.05 mg/l
10. Total hardness 200 mg/l

Table 4. CPCB Standards Shows the CPCB standards for drinking water

Parameters Lake Water
pH Value 7.19
Total dissolved solids 1920 mg/l
B.O.D 27 mg/l
C.O.D 17 mg/l
Total suspended solids 85 mg/l
Chloride 432 mg/l
Nitrate 19 mg/l
Chromium 42 mg/l
Total hardness 1095 mg/l

Table 5. Study of parameters (LW)

Parameters Lake Water
pH Value 7.21
Total dissolved solids 1386 mg/l
B.O.D 8 mg/l
C.O.D 19 mg/l
Total suspended solids 85 mg/l
Chloride 795 mg/l
Nitrate 7 mg/l
Chromium 15 mg/l
Total hardness 763 mg/l

Table 6. Study of parameters (BW)


The government of India is providingSwachh Bharat Abiyanfunds of Rs. 8000 to the citizens who are depreciate of toilets. Due to the unhygienic conditions in the street of study area (Maraimalainagar) design scheme was proposed which included the common bathroom for the residence of the city (Figure. 8).


Figure 8: Plan for common restroom.

The present review has created some imperative outcomes that have suggestions for both research and practice. Any real exertion at enhancing living states of the poor in creating nations must go for advancement of little group of Maraimalai Nagar water supply frameworks to protect satisfactory supply of consumable water. Water and sanitation are significance to life the absence of these administrations is damaging to human wellbeing and in addition the ecological prosperity and can diminish an all-around arranged territory into ghetto. In view of the present review it was presumed that the accessibility of latrine and henceforth the sanitation is less in Maraimalai Nagar. Furthermore it is discovered that the pH Value, chromium, B.O.D, iron and sulfate were observed to be a little higher when compared with the CPCB principles.


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