ISSN (0970-2083)

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  1. Dept. of Chem. Engg., CBIT, Gandipet, Hyderabad 075, India
  2. Process Engineer, Samuel Engg. Inc. USA
  3. Principal, JNTUCE, Pulivendula, A.P., India

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The 400 years old city of Hyderabad is an industrially developed city surrounded by many Industrial estates which continuously discharge large amounts of wastewaters into the nearby receiving water bodies. The present paper aims to study the impact of the pollution characteristics of such industrial discharges on their receiving water bodies. Pretreated wastewater samples were collected from selected industries of two such industrial estates of Hyderabad as well as from its nearby receiving water body. Their pollution characteristics were analyzed and compared with the statutory standards levied for industrial discharges into surface water bodies. The hike in a few of the parameters emphasizes on a continuous check on the discharge norms as well as on strict practice of treatment techniques, before discharging the wastewaters into the receiving bodies.


Pollution characteristics, Industrial wastewaters, Industrial discharges.


The relationship of man and environment indicates that pollution has a social origin. These social living conditions and the continuous technological developments need to maintain an ecological balance. But such a balance is possible only through environmental concern and social awareness in every individual. Today’s environmental threat is pollution in land, air and water which calls for its regular monitoring management and control. Thus, there is an urgent need to protect the environment in order to maintain life globally (Neelima, 1998).
The 400 years old world famous silicon city, Hyderabad, is surrounded by as many as fifteen industrial estates. Each estate in turn houses hundreds of small to medium scale industries along with that of a very few large scale. These chemical industries mainly comprise of bulk drug, pharmaceutical, electroplating, tannery and paper board manufacturing units, to name a few. The present paper aims to study the impact of the industrial effluents of a few chosen industries, on the nearby receiving water body.
Two major industrial estates have been identified for study. From each such estate about four industries (Table 1) were identified for analyzing the pollution characteristics of their effluents, based on their possible extent of pollution.


Pretreated effluent samples were collected from the discharge lines of the chosen industries. The samples were stored in pre-sterilized jerry cans fitted with double locking system. After measuring the temperature and pH of the samples, the cans were moved to the place of study. Similarly, samples were also collected from the nearby nallah which receives the industrial discharges from both the estates as well as from Hussain Sagar lake, a surface water body in the center of the city.
All the reagents used for the physico-chemical analysis were of AR grade. Distilled water was used to make the required solutions. All the parameters were analyzed according to the standard procedures (APHA, 1985). The samples were also analyzed for heavy metal content using atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS, ECIL model 4163). The results of the above analysis are tabulated separately for each industrial estate along that of the nallah and that of the lake, in Table 2 & 3. These results are further compared with the statutory standards levied for industrial discharges into surface water bodies (Kapadia, 2000), as mentioned in the last column of Table 2 and 3.


There are many small, medium and a few large scale industries located in the study area. The small industries mainly discharge untreated effluents into the nearest sewage or a nallah that carries many such discharges, along with domestic sewages of that area, into the Hussain sagar lake of the city. Based on the economic conditions, a few industries conduct preliminary treatment on their effluents and then either discharge them into a stream called nallah (in the colloquial language) or send the effluent tankers to the nearby common effluent treatment plants.
It can be observed from the results presented in Table 2 & 3 that the pollutant characteristics of the industrial discharges vary with both type and products of that industry. Not all units contribute to the high pollution levels of any receiving water body.
For example, with reference to the data in Table 2, the characteristics of effluents are more acidic. But when they finally reach the receiving surface water body, the pH level is within the acceptable level. While same is the case with the effluents being discharged from the other industrial estate specified in Table 3. Also, the effluents flowing through the Kukatpally nallah mix with the domestic sewages on their way and then discharge into Hussain sagar lake of the city.
The above situation is being made possible after most industries are practicing preliminary treatments for their wastewaters before discharging them into the nearby nallah. Similarly, a few medium to large industries stopped discharging their wastewaters directly into the nallah. Instead, they are using a common effluent treatment plant developed within the industrial estate. Still, the low levels of dissolved oxygen and accumulating dissolved solids in the wastewaters flowing through the nallah as well as in the receiving surface water body (Hussain sagar lake) cannot be overlooked.


Authors are grateful to the Director Prof. I.Ramachandra Reddy, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology (CBIT), Gandipet, Hyderabad for his constant encouragement and kind permission to use the institute laboratory facilities. The authors are also thankful to Mr. S.Amarendar Reddy, Lab technician, Public health lab, CBIT, Gandipet, Hyderabad for his co-operation and assistance.

Tables at a glance

Table icon  Table icon  Table icon
Table 1  Table 2  Table 3




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