Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM University, Kattankulathur-603 203, Tamil Nadu, India
Received Date: 17 June, 2017 Accepted Date: 22 August, 2017
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With the rapid development of national economy in Chennai, imbalance between supply and demand of traffic infrastructures becomes more and more acute, traffic block becomes even more serious, and one of causes is confliction of pedestrian and motor vehicle. Nowadays, pedestrian bridge is an important measure of resolving traffic problems to form people-oriented walk traffic system in Chennai. Building pedestrian bridge is to separate pedestrian from motor vehicle in space, resolve traffic congestion of main road, closely connect pedestrian bridge with subway, sidewalk, shopping promenade, urban residential area and square to perfect walk traffic system and improve trip environment. Certainly, multilevel, multifunctional and multi-implied public space is created besides traffic function of pedestrian bridge, but its traffic function is the primary function now a days. The city pedestrian bridge will only work if it is rationally construction. Among the many factors contributing to the success of the pedestrian bridge construction, the more important one is general layout. To overcome economic constraints, economical design methods are adopted using economically efficient products. To overcome Sustainability constraints, these constraints high performance concrete is used for the construction if applicable. Manufacturability constraints: This can include redesigning of product to reduce the number of parts, simplify fabrication, or utilize common parts and materials.
Over bridge, Pedestrian, Constraints, Reinforcement
To analysis the structural elements of a foot over bridge (beam column, staircase, truss, purlin, rafter, reinforced cement concrete deck slab, and reinforced cement concrete foundation and wind turbine). To design the structural elements of a foot over bridge. To do analogize study of analysis, the design of steel and composite self-sustainable foot over bridge with the wind turbine (Ayyadurai, et al., 2013; Mashyal and Anil, 2014).
The government of India enacted the energy conservation act 2001. This law provides an institutional arrangement and a regulatory mechanism at the central and state level to begin a drive to promote energy efficiency in the country. The ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE) has initiated certain comprehensive programs for the development and utilization of renewables. So this becomes the necessity to have a structure which can utilize the naturally available energy.
Structural elements (beam, column, staircase, truss, purlin, rafter, Reinforced Cement Concrete deck slab, and Reinforced Cement Concrete foundation and wind turbine) are designed. The Structure is designed for shear and dynamic load. Comparisons of the shear are found by using STAAD. Pro (Sharma, 2012; Hassan and Vittala, 2014; Malave and Bhosale, 2013).
• Design of steel beam
• Design of steel column
• Design of staircase
• Design of truss (purlin, rafter)
• Design of reinforced cement concrete deck slab
• Model of the reinforced cement concrete foundation
• Design for the shear
• Design for dynamic load carrying capacity
Appropriate location of the wind turbine (trial and error method).
The initial costs involved in design and construction of the structural components of the bridge such as planning, design etc. can be included in the initial cost, but the cost may arise as a result of exceedance of various critical failure limit states that may occur in the lifespan of a steel bridge. To overcome economic constraints, economical design methods are adopted using economically efficient products.
The process of developing engineering devices, products, and systems that use the resources available to it to meet the own needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to also meet their own needs. To overcome these constraints high performance concrete is used for the construction if applicable.
This can include redesigning of product to reduce the number of parts, simplify fabrication, or utilize common parts and materials (Maurya, et al., 2015; Banerjee and Prozzi, 2012).
Once the survey is done planning of a structure is done in a detailing way some of the drawings are shown below:
1. Here the top view and side view of the structure is given under approximate dimensions similar to dimensions of done case studies.
2. All the dimensions have been considered in meter. Planning is done accordingly with all the consideration of IRC provisions (Figure. 1).
3. The side view of the self-sustainable foot over bridge with wind turbine has been shown in (Figure. 2).
It is done with the help of STAAD. Pro V8i.
The (Figure. 3) shows the basic model of the bridge to be made.
Analysis of the structure
The analysis is done in STAAD Pro according to Indian standards. Here we will look at the each load acting on the structure.
Dead load means the weight of the material used in the construction of the bridge. Dead load considerations are taken from IS 875 - (Part-1) (Li and Qing-ning, 2012; Sandovica and Juozapaitis, 2012; Amgalan, 2013; Koh and Zhou, 2011).
The live load acting on the deck of the bridge. Live load means the weight of the pedestrians walking over them. Blue lines indicate the live load acting on it.
The live load considerations are taken from the provisions with all the considerations from IS 875 – (Part-2)
Since this is an open structure with a wind turbine. The wind load is taken into consideration.
Wind load is considered according to Indian standards of code IS 875(Part-3).
For the critical section the beam stress is equal. The critical section beam number 1124 should be considered always while we are manually designing.
The Maximum Axial Forces is as follow in the (Figure. 4) and Table 1.
|Beam||L/C||Section||Axial Force (k)||Shear-Y (k)||Shear-Z (kN)||Torsion (k-Nm)||Moment-Y (k-Nm)||Moment-Z (k-Nm)|
Table 1. The Axial force of different nodal points is as follows which was represented
Design elements for composite and steel structure
The major design elements are designed manually here and the detailed diagrams are as follow (Figures. 5-7).
• Design of slab
• Design of Beam
• Design of steel column
The Maximum Axial Forces is as follow which was shown in (Figure. 8).
The detailed forces of the beams have been noted for the designing part. Generally, the critical path value should be taken for designing. Here the beam 1124 has the maximum Axial force in kN.
The values of axial force of different section and it as follows Table 2 and (Figures. 9-12).
|Shear-Z (k-N)||Torsion (k-Nm)||Moment-Y (k-Nm)||Moment-Z (k-Nm)|
Table 2. Axial force tabular column is here
• Design of steel beam
• Design of stair case
• Design of gusset plate
Since wind turbine plays a key role in the structure first we will see the installions and advantages of turbine.
The wind turbine installation will be taken place according to type of axis i.e., either horizontal axis or vertical axis.
There are two types of turbines in general, one among that is a vertical axis wind turbine, and this is taken into consideration because of economic and low maintenance.
VAWT is the most popular of the turbines that people are adding to make their home a source of renewable energy. Vertical Axis Wind Turbines are designed to be economical and practical, as well as quiet and efficient. They are great for use in residential areas.
• Since VAWT are mounted closer to the ground they make maintenance easier, reduce the construction costs, are more bird friendly and does not destroy the wildlife.
• You do not need any mechanisms in order to operate the wind turbine
• Lower wind start-up speed
• The main advantage of VAWT is it does not need to be pointed towards the wind to be effective. In other words, they can be used on the sites with high variable wind direction.
• You can use the wind turbine where tall structures are not allowed.
• VAWT’s are quiet, efficient, economical and perfect for residential energy production, especially in urban environments.
• Valuable protection and extra durability.
Piezoelectric materials and solar panels
• In this project, we are generating electrical power as a non-conventional method by simply walking or running on the foot step.
• Converting mechanical energy to electrical energy.
• It uses the piezoelectric sensor.
• Solar panel refers to a panel designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source of energy for generating electricity or heating.
A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure pressure, acceleration, strain or force by converting them to an electrical signal.
• Footstep generated power can be used for various purpose like street lights etc.
• It can be used in emergency power failure situations.
• Reliable, Economical, Eco-Friendly
Less consumption of non-renewable energies, free of noise and no vibration.
• Self-generating – no external power required. Comparison of both structures
Here, the deflection and bending shear for the critical beam.
From the STAAD Pro analysis, beam number 5 has maximum deflection (Figure. 13) and Table 3.
Table 3. The various deflections for different spans of the critical beam is as follows
The maximum deflection for steel shown below in (Figure. 14) and Table 4.
Table 4. The deflection values of beam 5 at different spans are shown
Here, the deflection for steel is less when compared with composite structure. So, by terms of deflection we can clearly say steel is preferred (IS: 808- 1989; IS: 80-2007; IS 456- 2000; IRC 006; IRC SP 075; IRC 084).
The maximum bending and shear for steel have shown below. Considering shear since wind turbine is placed below the deck slab the vibrations will be high but we can restrict by using Vertical axis turbine.
The following (Figure. 15) shows the shear bending for composite structure Table 5.
|Distance (m)||Mz (k-Nm)|
Table 5. The values for shear bending at different spans
Now for the steel structure, considering dead load the shear bending for the critical section is as follow in the (Figure. 16) and Table 6.
|Distance (m)||Fy (kN)||Mz (kNm)|
Table 6. Values for different spans of shear bending is as follows
Here, the deflection for steel is less when compared with composite structure. So, by terms of deflection clearly steel is preferred.
• After completing the analysis, design of both the structures a comparison between bending and shear has been noted.
• Analysis and designing of real - time structure and design constraints.
• Outcome in proper design and analysis, so that the strength of the structure has been determined (composite/steel).
• Considering all the constraints Steel Bridge is more suitable in terms of Economic, Sustainability and Manufacturability.
• This can be future of generating the electricity by using natural sources.
• Additional beneficiary aspects like escalators can be added for the future scope.
• Steel bridge is more preferable in terms of cost wise and strength wise.
• Most economical design methods are adopted using economically efficient products.
• High performance concrete is used for the construction purpose if applicable to overcome sustainability constraints.
• Knowledge regarding natural energy and its effective use.
The authors wish to thank the SRM University Management, for their support to complete this study and those who were directly or indirectly involved in this study. Also thanks Dr. K. S. Satyanarayanan, Professor, Civil, SRM University for his help in reviews of this research works during its progress.