ASSESSMENT OF THE DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS FROM AYURVEDIC PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES AND POTENTIAL VALORIZATION
Ayurvedic medicine-based pharmaceutical industries are among the most profitable worldwide. After extracting the active ingredients, the herbal pharmaceutical industries produce an appreciable amount of wastewater in addition to solid herbal wastes. The current study focuses on the thorough physico-chemical characterization of the wastewater and solid residue for parameters, including pH, TSS, TDS, COD, BOD, TKN, TP, Oil and Grease (O and G), etc. Based on the results, it is reasonable to conclude that wastewater characteristics, including pH, O and G, organic load, and nutrients, vary considerably among industries, and hence it would be difficult to define a precise range of wastewater parameters. The effluent from ayurvedic pharmaceuticals may be generally characterized as having an acidic nature, more O and G and less nutrients (TKN and TP). Additionally, the results of the Biochemical Methane Potential Test (BMP) were encouraging in terms of the capacity of wastewater to generate biogas. It was found that the different regulating parameters of anaerobic treatment, including pH, VFAs, alkalinity, and VFA/Alkalinity ratio, were within the range, indicating better process stability. The biomass compositional analysis showed that the residue was primarily lignocellulosic in origin, with cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents ranging from 34% to 41%, 17% to 20%, and 31%-38%, respectively, for both herbal and oil residues. Since lignocellulosic biomass is difficult to decompose, it is preferable to dry the solid waste and utilize it as a solid fuel.
SULTHANA B S , DIPIN NATH R S , KRISHNA KUMAR B, AKSHAY D SHENDE