ISSN (0970-2083)

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Review Article Open Access



 The use of chromium has been increased since last two-three decades due to its high demand in different industries. The anthropogenic activities and waste products from industries like steel, leather, tannery and dye production has released the chromium into soil and water bodies causes the environmental pollution. Chromium mostly occurs in two stables forms i.e. Cr6+ and Cr3+. The hexavalent form of chromium is more toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic as compared to its trivalent form which is less toxic and insoluble. The conversion of hexavalent chromium to trivalent is a basic process of detoxification. Behaviour of chromium in soil and its transfer/accumulation in plants and different plant parts vary with plant type, soil physio-chemical properties and its chemical form. Microbes present in the soil plays an important role in speciation and behaviour of Cr in soil. For the uptake of Chromium, there is no specific transporter used by plants and it is relay on the specific and non-specific transporter channels of essential ions. The accumulation of chromium is mostly seen in root tissues region of plants with a limited translocation to shoot parts. The chromium toxicity had adverse effects on plants physiological, morphological and biochemical processes. Apart from these effects, chromium also affects the plant growth, nutrient uptake and photosynthesis process, induces enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species and causes lipid peroxidation and alteration of antioxidant activities. Plants have various defence mechanisms against Cr toxicity via anti-oxidative enzymes such as complexation by organic ligands, compartmentation into the vacuole and scavenging ROS. The consumption of Cr-contaminated food can cause serious health hazards to humans by inducing severe clinical conditions. In order to achieve this, use of plants and microbes and their interaction through phytoremediation process has gained popularity in recent times. Microorganisms are omnipresent in the environment. Soil rhizosphere, a nutrient-rich bio-resource is the habitat of versatile microorganisms. Here the microbes plays an important role by their biological activities that are vital to retain soil fertility and plant growth by decomposition, assisting nitrogen fixation, mineralization and immobilization of different macro/micro nutrients. In addition, soil microbes play an important role by governing the biogeochemical behaviour of heavy metals in soil-plant system


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