POLLUTION OF PHARMACEUTICALS IN ENVIRONMENT
The presences of pharmaceuticals in the environment are increasingly a worldwide concern. Patients, in case of drugs for human use, or animals for veterinary drugs are the main sources of contamination. Several pharmaceuticals widely used in human medicine are excreted unchanged or as active metabolites in high percentages and continuously discharged into domestic waste waters. Pharmaceuticals may have long half-lives in the environment, so they can accumulate, reaching detectable and biologically active levels. Recent studies have demonstrated that many pharmaceuticals are incompletely eliminated at sewage treatment plants. The existence of drugs in surface waters, groundwater and even marine systems has been confirmed at concentrations of high to low level. Ecotoxicological effects, Pharmacological effects and Resistance development of micro-organisms are potential risks exposure to concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environment but there is insufficient ecotoxicity, physicochemical and biodegradability data for most pharmaceuticals for executing a complete risk evaluation as well as influence on ecological processes in ecosystems, is lacking. Therefore, human health risk assessment and ecotoxicological hazard evaluation must be developed.
M.H. SAYADI , R.K. TRIVEDY AND R.K. PATHAK
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